Nova Scotia Laser Beam Machining Process Parameters Pdf

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Laser Beam Machining Industrial Engineering

laser beam machining process parameters pdf

Laser beam machining of commercially pure titanium. Today we will learn about laser beam machining principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. Laser beam machining is a thermal machining process which uses laser beam to produce heat., machining processes involving a laser beam as a heat source. Laser cutting is a popular process, which finds wide Laser cutting is a popular process, which finds wide applications in various manufacturing industries due to its precision of operation and low cost..

Electron-beam machining Wikipedia

Laser beam micro-machining under water immersion. Reachable machining quality for laser beam cutting is influenced by various laser and process parameters. Process integrated quality techniques have to be applied to ensure high-quality products and a cost effective use of the laser manufacturing plant. Therefore, rugged and versatile online process monitoring techniques at an affordable price would be desirable. Methods for the, delivered to the material by the laser beam pulses can be changed by changing the basic process parameters, like the laser beam average power, the laser beam scanning speed, and the repetition rate of the laser pulses [3,4]. The main purpose of this project is the experimental investigation of how the laser beam machining process parameters (average output power, repetition rate, and scanning.

Laser beam machining of commercially pure titanium: influence of process parameters on surface roughness Peter Šugár, Martin Necpal, Jana Šugárová Chapter 2 Laser Beam Machining Shoujin Sun and Milan Brandt Abstract The cost of cutting hard-to-machine materials by conventional mechanical machining processes is high due to …

Processing with kW fibre lasers - advantages and limits Invited Paper Kratky, A., Schuocker, D. and Liedl, G.¨ Department of Forming and High Power Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology, processes in which the laser beam is focused : The process parameters are determined by the material properties. 10 . ME 677: Laser Material Processing Instructor: Ramesh Singh Penetration Laser Welding • At high power densities all materials will evaporate if the energy can be absorbed. Thus, when welding in this way a hole is usually formed by evaporation • This "hole" is then

DEFINING NEW PROCESSING PARAMETERS IN LASER CUTTING The process of laser cutting is a type of machining, which entails the interaction between the laser beam, cutting gas and workpiece (Figure 1). The zone in which this process occurs is known as the cutting zone. The main task of the laser power in the cutting zone is to heat the material to the required temperature, thus … Laser beam machining of commercially pure titanium: influence of process parameters on surface roughness Peter Šugár, Martin Necpal, Jana Šugárová

Laser beam machining (LBM) is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be impossible to machine with traditional techniques. The non-contact machining technique has been continuously evolving from a simple tool and dies making the process to a micro-scale application machining alternative attracting a significant amount of research interests. Laser machining has Power Density: In laser beam welding or heat treating, the instantaneous laser beam power per unit area. This parameter is key in determining the fusion zone profile (area of base metal melted) on a workpiece. Recast Layer: Molten metal which forms a layer of debris on the surface of the material during picosecond machining. Slag: The unwanted material that is removed from metal when it is

Chapter 2 Laser Beam Machining Shoujin Sun and Milan Brandt Abstract The cost of cutting hard-to-machine materials by conventional mechanical machining processes is high due to … research work, the effect of process parameters such as cutting speed, frequency and duty cycle on surface roughness (Ra) for mild steel material in laser cutting is discussed.

Laser Beam Machining is widely used manufacturing technique utilized to perform cutting, engraving and welding operations on a wide variety of materials ranging from metals to plastics. In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters such as feed rate, input power and standoff distance on the quality of machining processes laser beam machining (LBM) is one of the most widespread applications of lasers and a well-established and effective method of cutting a wide range of materials, mainly metals [28]. LBM has several advantages over conventional methods. Firstly, as non-contact process, LBM it well suited for cutting advanced engineering materials such as difficult to cut materials, brittle

research work, the effect of process parameters such as cutting speed, frequency and duty cycle on surface roughness (Ra) for mild steel material in laser cutting is discussed. Processing with kW п¬Ѓbre lasers - advantages and limits Invited Paper Kratky, A., Schuocker, D. and Liedl, G.ВЁ Department of Forming and High Power Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology,

machining processes laser beam machining (LBM) is one of the most widespread applications of lasers and a well-established and effective method of cutting a wide range of materials, mainly metals [28]. LBM has several advantages over conventional methods. Firstly, as non-contact process, LBM it well suited for cutting advanced engineering materials such as difficult to cut materials, brittle Today we will learn about laser beam machining principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. Laser beam machining is a thermal machining process which uses laser beam to produce heat.

Title: Current Research and Development in Laser Beam Machining (LBM): A Review Author: Amitkumar D. Shinde; Pravin R. Kubade Subject: Current Research and Development in Laser Beam Machining \(LBM\): A Review parameters for the cutting process spe-cific to a profile. The user can also select piercing conditions associated with dif-ferent materials. These conditions can be modified during program execution. Materials lists The common parameters associated with a material that affect the CUTTING and PIERCING processes are organized in the Materials Lists. The technological data for a specific

The Laser Beam Micromachining (LBMM) process is a non-traditional technique that is capable of machining a wide range of materials with ultraprecision in a short period [1]. Abstract. Underwater laser beam machining is considered as one of the alternative approaches to minimize the undesired impacts of dry laser beam machining (LBM) such as coarse machining kerf, high re-deposition of melt debris, and thermal damages.

Power Density: In laser beam welding or heat treating, the instantaneous laser beam power per unit area. This parameter is key in determining the fusion zone profile (area of base metal melted) on a workpiece. Recast Layer: Molten metal which forms a layer of debris on the surface of the material during picosecond machining. Slag: The unwanted material that is removed from metal when it is delivered to the material by the laser beam pulses can be changed by changing the basic process parameters, like the laser beam average power, the laser beam scanning speed, and the repetition rate of the laser pulses [3,4]. The main purpose of this project is the experimental investigation of how the laser beam machining process parameters (average output power, repetition rate, and scanning

DEFINING NEW PROCESSING PARAMETERS IN LASER CUTTING The process of laser cutting is a type of machining, which entails the interaction between the laser beam, cutting gas and workpiece (Figure 1). The zone in which this process occurs is known as the cutting zone. The main task of the laser power in the cutting zone is to heat the material to the required temperature, thus … delivered to the material by the laser beam pulses can be changed by changing the basic process parameters, like the laser beam average power, the laser beam scanning speed, and the repetition rate of the laser pulses [3,4]. The main purpose of this project is the experimental investigation of how the laser beam machining process parameters (average output power, repetition rate, and scanning

Identify the process parameters of EBM & LBM vi. Identify the machining characteristics of EBM & LBM vii. List threeapplications of EBM & LBM viii. List three limitations of EBM & LBM 1. Introduction Electron Beam Machining (EBM) and Laser Beam Machining (LBM) are thermal processes considering the mechanisms of material removal. However electrical energy is used to generate high … I hereby, declare this thesis entitled “Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameters involved in Laser Beam Machining of Stainless Steel (6mm and 8 mm thickness)” is the results of my own research except as cited in the reference.

Laser Beam Machining – The Lasing Process • Lasing process describes the basic operation of laser, i.e. generation of coherent beam of light by “light amplification” using “stimulated emission”. • • In the model of atom, negatively charged electrons rotate around the positively charged nucleus in some specified orbital paths. • • The geometry and radii of such orbital paths The Laser Beam Micromachining (LBMM) process is a non-traditional technique that is capable of machining a wide range of materials with ultraprecision in a short period [1].

DEFINING NEW PROCESSING PARAMETERS IN LASER CUTTING

laser beam machining process parameters pdf

Research Article Parametric Optimization of NdYAG Laser. The Laser Beam Micromachining (LBMM) process is a non-traditional technique that is capable of machining a wide range of materials with ultraprecision in a short period [1]., Chapter 2 Laser Beam Machining Shoujin Sun and Milan Brandt Abstract The cost of cutting hard-to-machine materials by conventional mechanical machining processes is high due to ….

Parameters Optimization of Laser Beam Machine IJARIIT. Laser Beam Machining – The Lasing Process • Lasing process describes the basic operation of laser, i.e. generation of coherent beam of light by “light amplification” using “stimulated emission”. • • In the model of atom, negatively charged electrons rotate around the positively charged nucleus in some specified orbital paths. • • The geometry and radii of such orbital paths, I hereby, declare this thesis entitled “Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameters involved in Laser Beam Machining of Stainless Steel (6mm and 8 mm thickness)” is the results of my own research except as cited in the reference..

process parameters of laser beam machining wikipedia

laser beam machining process parameters pdf

Laser Beam Machining Industrial Engineering. parameters for the cutting process spe-cific to a profile. The user can also select piercing conditions associated with dif-ferent materials. These conditions can be modified during program execution. Materials lists The common parameters associated with a material that affect the CUTTING and PIERCING processes are organized in the Materials Lists. The technological data for a specific machining processes involving a laser beam as a heat source. Laser cutting is a popular process, which finds wide Laser cutting is a popular process, which finds wide applications in various manufacturing industries due to its precision of operation and low cost..

laser beam machining process parameters pdf

  • Processing with kW fibre lasers advantages and limits
  • Laser Beam Machining Industrial Engineering

  • I hereby, declare this thesis entitled “Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameters involved in Laser Beam Machining of Stainless Steel (6mm and 8 mm thickness)” is the results of my own research except as cited in the reference. Identify the process parameters of EBM & LBM vi. Identify the machining characteristics of EBM & LBM vii. List threeapplications of EBM & LBM viii. List three limitations of EBM & LBM 1. Introduction Electron Beam Machining (EBM) and Laser Beam Machining (LBM) are thermal processes considering the mechanisms of material removal. However electrical energy is used to generate high …

    There are various aspects of laser beam machining that can be modelled with different methods in order to predict quality characteristics which are essential for any manufacturing process [6]. In [7] technique to predict surface roughness in the laser cutting process is developed for the first time by analysing the dynamic phenomenon that happens within the cutting front. The quality Processing with kW п¬Ѓbre lasers - advantages and limits Invited Paper Kratky, A., Schuocker, D. and Liedl, G.ВЁ Department of Forming and High Power Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology,

    machining processes involving a laser beam as a heat source. Laser cutting is a popular process, which finds wide Laser cutting is a popular process, which finds wide applications in various manufacturing industries due to its precision of operation and low cost. Chapter 2 Laser Beam Machining Shoujin Sun and Milan Brandt Abstract The cost of cutting hard-to-machine materials by conventional mechanical machining processes is high due to …

    Power Density: In laser beam welding or heat treating, the instantaneous laser beam power per unit area. This parameter is key in determining the fusion zone profile (area of base metal melted) on a workpiece. Recast Layer: Molten metal which forms a layer of debris on the surface of the material during picosecond machining. Slag: The unwanted material that is removed from metal when it is Laser Cutting. Laser cutting is a technology that uses a high-power laser to scan material surface, and the material is heated in an extremely short time, leading to the temperature rises up to 103 or 104K, then the melting and vaporization phenomena occur.

    Today we will learn about laser beam machining principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. Laser beam machining is a thermal machining process which uses laser beam to produce heat. The laser cutting parameters are dependent on the beam characteristics, the cutting rate required, the composition and thickness of the material to be cut, and the desired cut edge quality. The laser cutting process and cut quality depend upon the proper selection of laser and workpiece parameters. Deficiencies in cutting quality may be related to the slow process drifts and disturbances that

    Laser beam machining of commercially pure titanium: influence of process parameters on surface roughness Peter Šugár, Martin Necpal, Jana Šugárová Today we will learn about laser beam machining principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. Laser beam machining is a thermal machining process which uses laser beam to produce heat.

    An experimental study is presented to investigate the effects of laser cutting conditions on kerf geometry with variable process parameters. Laser traverse speed, laser power and laser focal position related to the specimen quality are varied during the cutting process to simulate the situations encountered in practice. parameters for the cutting process spe-cific to a profile. The user can also select piercing conditions associated with dif-ferent materials. These conditions can be modified during program execution. Materials lists The common parameters associated with a material that affect the CUTTING and PIERCING processes are organized in the Materials Lists. The technological data for a specific

    laser beam machining process parameters pdf

    Laser beam machining (LBM) is one in all the advanced machining processes that used for shaping virtually whole variety of engineering materials. In LBM, surface roughness is one in all necessary response that affects the product Electron-beam machining (EBM) is a process where high-velocity electrons concentrated into a narrow beam are directed toward the work piece, creating heat and vaporizing the material.

    Experimental Investigation of Stainless Steel SAE304 Laser

    laser beam machining process parameters pdf

    DEFINING NEW PROCESSING PARAMETERS IN LASER CUTTING . DEFINING NEW PROCESSING PARAMETERS IN LASER CUTTING The process of laser cutting is a type of machining, which entails the interaction between the laser beam, cutting gas and workpiece (Figure 1). The zone in which this process occurs is known as the cutting zone. The main task of the laser power in the cutting zone is to heat the material to the required temperature, thus …, parameters for the cutting process spe-cific to a profile. The user can also select piercing conditions associated with dif-ferent materials. These conditions can be modified during program execution. Materials lists The common parameters associated with a material that affect the CUTTING and PIERCING processes are organized in the Materials Lists. The technological data for a specific.

    Laser beam machining—A review 123seminarsonly.com

    Experimental Investigation of Stainless Steel SAE304 Laser. Laser beam cutting (LBC) process has a wide range of applications in different manufacturing processes in industry due to its advantages of high cut quality and cost effectiveness through mass-production rate [1]., Laser cutting is mostly a thermal process in which a focused laser beam is used to melt material in a localized area. A co-axial gas jet is used to eject the molten material from the cut and leave a clean edge. A continuous cut is produced by moving.

    parameters for the cutting process spe-cific to a profile. The user can also select piercing conditions associated with dif-ferent materials. These conditions can be modified during program execution. Materials lists The common parameters associated with a material that affect the CUTTING and PIERCING processes are organized in the Materials Lists. The technological data for a specific Laser Beam Machining – The Lasing Process • Lasing process describes the basic operation of laser, i.e. generation of coherent beam of light by “light amplification” using “stimulated emission”. • • In the model of atom, negatively charged electrons rotate around the positively charged nucleus in some specified orbital paths. • • The geometry and radii of such orbital paths

    processes in which the laser beam is focused : The process parameters are determined by the material properties. 10 . ME 677: Laser Material Processing Instructor: Ramesh Singh Penetration Laser Welding • At high power densities all materials will evaporate if the energy can be absorbed. Thus, when welding in this way a hole is usually formed by evaporation • This "hole" is then Electron-beam machining (EBM) is a process where high-velocity electrons concentrated into a narrow beam are directed toward the work piece, creating heat and vaporizing the material.

    Laser Cutting. Laser cutting is a technology that uses a high-power laser to scan material surface, and the material is heated in an extremely short time, leading to the temperature rises up to 103 or 104K, then the melting and vaporization phenomena occur. processes in which the laser beam is focused : The process parameters are determined by the material properties. 10 . ME 677: Laser Material Processing Instructor: Ramesh Singh Penetration Laser Welding • At high power densities all materials will evaporate if the energy can be absorbed. Thus, when welding in this way a hole is usually formed by evaporation • This "hole" is then

    The laser cutting parameters are dependent on the beam characteristics, the cutting rate required, the composition and thickness of the material to be cut, and the desired cut edge quality. The laser cutting process and cut quality depend upon the proper selection of laser and workpiece parameters. Deficiencies in cutting quality may be related to the slow process drifts and disturbances that abrasive machining procceses parameters term papaer, abrasive machining process parameters, abrasive machining and process paramaters, abrasive machining and process parameters pdf free, Title: Laser beam machining LBM full report

    DEFINING NEW PROCESSING PARAMETERS IN LASER CUTTING The process of laser cutting is a type of machining, which entails the interaction between the laser beam, cutting gas and workpiece (Figure 1). The zone in which this process occurs is known as the cutting zone. The main task of the laser power in the cutting zone is to heat the material to the required temperature, thus … The laser beam has also been used to carry out other heat processes with materials: surface hardening; alloying and vapour deposition, which do not involve melting of the material and require lower power densities; drilling and cutting, at even higher power densities where material ablation occurs,

    I hereby, declare this thesis entitled “Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameters involved in Laser Beam Machining of Stainless Steel (6mm and 8 mm thickness)” is the results of my own research except as cited in the reference. Laser beam machining (LBM) is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be impossible to machine with traditional techniques. The non-contact machining technique has been continuously evolving from a simple tool and dies making the process to a micro-scale application machining alternative attracting a significant amount of research interests. Laser machining has

    PARAMETERS AND PROCESS CAPABILITY Although there are many parameters which influence the process, there are three most important parameters related to electron beam machining, those are : 1. Beam current Beam current is continuously adjustable from approximately 100 GA to 1 A. As the setting of beam current is increased, the amount of energy per pulse delivered to the workpiece is … Identify the process parameters of EBM & LBM vi. Identify the machining characteristics of EBM & LBM vii. List threeapplications of EBM & LBM viii. List three limitations of EBM & LBM 1. Introduction Electron Beam Machining (EBM) and Laser Beam Machining (LBM) are thermal processes considering the mechanisms of material removal. However electrical energy is used to generate high …

    I hereby, declare this thesis entitled “Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameters involved in Laser Beam Machining of Stainless Steel (6mm and 8 mm thickness)” is the results of my own research except as cited in the reference. the high energy processes of laser, electron beam, plasma, water jet and oxy-fuel. Oxy­ fuel or flame cutting, is still largely used for cutting very thick workpieces of metals, typically 100 mm to 500 mm thick (Rickfalt 1995). The edges of the cut are oxidised and the kerf produced is large. The heating fuel is usually propane, natural gas, a hydrocarbon mixture or acetylene, and is

    Laser beam cutting (LBC) process has a wide range of applications in different manufacturing processes in industry due to its advantages of high cut quality and cost effectiveness through mass-production rate [1]. The Laser Beam Micromachining (LBMM) process is a non-traditional technique that is capable of machining a wide range of materials with ultraprecision in a short period [1].

    Laser beam machining is a thermal energy based on the non-conventional machining process. Laser is an optical transducer which converts the electrical energy into the high coherent light beam. When the laser is focused on the conventional optical lens, at that instance high power density is generated. Processing with kW п¬Ѓbre lasers - advantages and limits Invited Paper Kratky, A., Schuocker, D. and Liedl, G.ВЁ Department of Forming and High Power Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology,

    Abrasive waterjet cutting (also called Abrasive waterjet machining or AWJM) is similar to laser beam machining and electron-beam machining in one respect. The similarity lies in concentrating a given amount of energy into a small point to cause material removal. Abrasive waterjet cutting involves using an extremely fine jet of water travelling at high velocity, into which an abrasive material Title: Current Research and Development in Laser Beam Machining (LBM): A Review Author: Amitkumar D. Shinde; Pravin R. Kubade Subject: Current Research and Development in Laser Beam Machining \(LBM\): A Review

    Laser beam machining is widely used in the field of micro system technology sectors, automotive manufacturing, diagnostic, medical applications, biomedicines, display units, printing technology etc. Developments in Fiber laser techniques (pulsed laser) and system Laser Beam Machining – The Lasing Process • Lasing process describes the basic operation of laser, i.e. generation of coherent beam of light by “light amplification” using “stimulated emission”. • • In the model of atom, negatively charged electrons rotate around the positively charged nucleus in some specified orbital paths. • • The geometry and radii of such orbital paths

    Laser beam machining is a thermal energy based on the non-conventional machining process. Laser is an optical transducer which converts the electrical energy into the high coherent light beam. When the laser is focused on the conventional optical lens, at that instance high power density is generated. The laser cutting parameters are dependent on the beam characteristics, the cutting rate required, the composition and thickness of the material to be cut, and the desired cut edge quality. The laser cutting process and cut quality depend upon the proper selection of laser and workpiece parameters. Deficiencies in cutting quality may be related to the slow process drifts and disturbances that

    Parameters Optimization of Laser Beam Machine IJARIIT

    laser beam machining process parameters pdf

    ELECTRON BEAM MACHINING Academia.edu. Laser beam machining of commercially pure titanium: influence of process parameters on surface roughness Peter Šugár, Martin Necpal, Jana Šugárová, processes in which the laser beam is focused : The process parameters are determined by the material properties. 10 . ME 677: Laser Material Processing Instructor: Ramesh Singh Penetration Laser Welding • At high power densities all materials will evaporate if the energy can be absorbed. Thus, when welding in this way a hole is usually formed by evaporation • This "hole" is then.

    Introduction of Laser Machining Processes AML - Home

    laser beam machining process parameters pdf

    Laser 3D Machining with Variable Process Parameters AIP. and cutting temperature using various process parameters like cutting speed, feed rate and laser power. It has been It has been concluded that simulation models and optimization techniques can be a part of future research works. Laser beam machining (LBM) is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be impossible to machine with traditional techniques. The non-contact machining technique has been continuously evolving from a simple tool and dies making the process to a micro-scale application machining alternative attracting a significant amount of research interests. Laser machining has.

    laser beam machining process parameters pdf

  • Laser 3D Machining with Variable Process Parameters AIP
  • Processing with kW fibre lasers advantages and limits

  • machining processes laser beam machining (LBM) is one of the most widespread applications of lasers and a well-established and effective method of cutting a wide range of materials, mainly metals [28]. LBM has several advantages over conventional methods. Firstly, as non-contact process, LBM it well suited for cutting advanced engineering materials such as difficult to cut materials, brittle Laser cutting is mostly a thermal process in which a focused laser beam is used to melt material in a localized area. A co-axial gas jet is used to eject the molten material from the cut and leave a clean edge. A continuous cut is produced by moving

    An experimental study is presented to investigate the effects of laser cutting conditions on kerf geometry with variable process parameters. Laser traverse speed, laser power and laser focal position related to the specimen quality are varied during the cutting process to simulate the situations encountered in practice. Today we will learn about laser beam machining principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. Laser beam machining is a thermal machining process which uses laser beam to produce heat.

    I hereby, declare this thesis entitled “Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameters involved in Laser Beam Machining of Stainless Steel (6mm and 8 mm thickness)” is the results of my own research except as cited in the reference. delivered to the material by the laser beam pulses can be changed by changing the basic process parameters, like the laser beam average power, the laser beam scanning speed, and the repetition rate of the laser pulses [3,4]. The main purpose of this project is the experimental investigation of how the laser beam machining process parameters (average output power, repetition rate, and scanning

    delivered to the material by the laser beam pulses can be changed by changing the basic process parameters, like the laser beam average power, the laser beam scanning speed, and the repetition rate of the laser pulses [3,4]. The main purpose of this project is the experimental investigation of how the laser beam machining process parameters (average output power, repetition rate, and scanning I hereby, declare this thesis entitled “Analysis and Optimization of Process Parameters involved in Laser Beam Machining of Stainless Steel (6mm and 8 mm thickness)” is the results of my own research except as cited in the reference.

    Laser Beam Machining – The Lasing Process • Lasing process describes the basic operation of laser, i.e. generation of coherent beam of light by “light amplification” using “stimulated emission”. • • In the model of atom, negatively charged electrons rotate around the positively charged nucleus in some specified orbital paths. • • The geometry and radii of such orbital paths Laser beam machining (LBM) is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be impossible to machine with traditional techniques. The non-contact machining technique has been continuously evolving from a simple tool and dies making the process to a micro-scale application machining alternative attracting a significant amount of research interests. Laser machining has

    abrasive machining procceses parameters term papaer, abrasive machining process parameters, abrasive machining and process paramaters, abrasive machining and process parameters pdf free, Title: Laser beam machining LBM full report Reachable machining quality for laser beam cutting is influenced by various laser and process parameters. Process integrated quality techniques have to be applied to ensure high-quality products and a cost effective use of the laser manufacturing plant. Therefore, rugged and versatile online process monitoring techniques at an affordable price would be desirable. Methods for the

    laser beam machining process parameters pdf

    Laser beam machining (LBM) is one amongst the foremost widely used thermal energy based non-contact kind advance machining method which may be applied for nearly whole vary of materials. ray of light is focussed for melting and vaporizing the unwanted material from the parent material. it's appropriate for geometrically advanced profile cutting and cutting temperature using various process parameters like cutting speed, feed rate and laser power. It has been It has been concluded that simulation models and optimization techniques can be a part of future research works.

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